AVIAN INFLUENZA

Avian Influenza is a communicable disease that be caused by Influenza virus strain type A (H5N1). It is transmitted by the fowl that’s able to attack the human. Generally Avian Influenza virus attacks the fowl only, but certain many types have experience to change become more savage and attack human.

Clinical Symptoms

The symptoms that be found in avian influenza as generally influenza symptoms i.e. fever, sore throat, cough, with snot, muscle pain, headache, fatigue. In short time this disease can become more severe as lung infection (pneumonia), and if the treatment of case is bad can cause the patient will die.

Etiology and Characteristics

Etiology of this disease is Influenza virus. The characteristics of this virus i.e.: able to live endure in water until four days at temperature 22oC and more than 30 days at temperature 0oC. In feces and body of avian or fowl that is ill this virus can live endure more long time, but will die on heating 60oC for 30 minutes.

Incubation period

Incubation periods of influenza virus are variously, between 1 - 3 days.

Sources and spreading styles

The spreading of avian influenza (H5N1) in fowl occur accordance with fast by high fatality rate. Spreading this disease occur in the meanwhile fowl population one fowl husbandry, moreover can spread from one fowl husbandry to other area fowl husbandry. Whereas the spreading this disease to human can pass through air which be contaminated by virus from feces or mucus of fowl that is attacked by avian influenza. People whose have high risk be attacked by this avian influenza (H5N1) are employee of fowl husbandry, seller and a person who has task fowl preparation.
No evidence yet occurs spreading from person to person. Besides that no evidence yet spreading in human passes through fowl meat consumption.

Treatments

Patient who’s suffering an avian influenza should be treated by hospitalization. In hospital they are given as below:
  1. Oxygenation, if be found respiratory disorder and it will become respiratory failure in trend by oxygen maintenance more than 90%.
  2. Hydrations by give them intra vena fluids.
  3. They can be given anti viral medicine i.e. : Oseltamivir 75 mg twice every day for 7 days.
  4. In respiratory distress case the treatment is given accordance with RDS procedures and the patient be treated in ICU room especially.
  5. Amantadine/Rimantadin is given in early infection at the first of 48 hours for 3 - 5 days by 5 mg/kg body weigh/day be divided two doses. If the body weighs of patient more than 45 kg is given 100 mg dose twice a day. In elder and patient with decrease of liver or kidney functions the dose must be decreased.
  6. Oseltamivir for children less than 15 kg body weigh is 30 mg dose twice a day, more than 15 - 23 kg body weigh is 45 mg dose twice a day, more than 23 - 40 kg body weigh is 60 mg dose twice a day, and more than 40 kg body weigh is 75 mg dose twice a day. Dose of oseltamivir for a patient age more than 13 years is 75 mg twice a day.

Prevention efforts

Prevention efforts spreading of avian influenza can be done by avoids material that is contaminated by feces and mucus of fowl with efforts as below:
  • A person who’s contact with material from gastrointestinal tract of bird has to use body protection (masker, goggles).
  • The material from gastrointestinal tract of fowl as feces must be managed finely (be graved, be burned) in other it does not become spreading sources for people it’s around.
  • The instrument which be used in fowl husbandry must be disinfected.
  • Stable and feces may not be exited from fowl husbandry location.
  • To consumptive chicken meat that is cooked at temperature 80oC for one minute, whereas the fowl egg need be heated at temperature 64oC for five minute.
  • Keep the environment always clean.
  • Keep self hygiene.

1 komentar:

Dipl.-Ing. Wilfried Soddemann said...

CUT THE CHAIN OF INFECTIONS !

Spread of avian flu by drinking water:

Proved awareness to ecology and transmission is necessary to understand the spread of avian flu. For this it is insufficient exclusive to test samples from wild birds, poultry and humans for avian flu viruses. Samples from the known abiotic vehicles as water also have to be analysed. Proving viruses in water is difficult because of dilution. If you find no viruses you can not be sure that there are not any. On the other hand in water viruses remain viable for a long time. Water has to be tested for influenza viruses by cell culture and in particular by the more sensitive molecular biology method PCR.

Transmission of avian flu by direct contact to infected poultry is an unproved assumption from the WHO. There is no evidence that influenza primarily is transmitted by saliva droplets: “Transmission of influenza A in human beings” http://www.thelancet.com/journals/laninf/article/PIIS1473309907700294/abstract?iseop=true.

There are clear links between the cold, rainy seasons as well as floods and the spread of influenza. There are clear links between avian flu and water, e.g. in Egypt to the Nile delta or in Indonesia to residential districts of less prosperous humans with backyard flocks of birds and without a central water supply as in Vietnam: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol12no12/06-0829.htm. See also the WHO web side: http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/emerging/h5n1background.pdf. That is just why abiotic vehicles as water have to be analysed. The direct biotic transmission from birds, poultry or humans to humans can not depend on the cold, rainy seasons or floods. Water is a very efficient abiotic vehicle for the spread of viruses - in particular of fecal as well as by mouth, nose and eyes excreted viruses. Infected humans, mammals, birds and poultry can contaminate drinking water everywhere. All humans have very intensive contact to drinking water. Spread of avian flu by drinking water can explain small clusters in households too.

Avian flu infections may increase in consequence to increase of virus circulation. Human to human and contact transmission of influenza occur - but are overvalued immense. In the course of influenza epidemics in Germany, recognized clusters are rare, accounting for just 9 percent of cases e.g. in the 2005 season. In temperate climates the lethal H5N1 virus will be transferred to humans via cold drinking water, as with the birds in February and March 2006, strong seasonal at the time when (drinking) water has its temperature minimum.

The performance to eliminate viruses from the drinking water processing plants regularly does not meet the requirements of the WHO and the USA/USEPA. Conventional disinfection procedures are poor, because microorganisms in the water are not in suspension, but embedded in particles. Even ground water used for drinking water is not free from viruses.

In temperate regions influenza epidemics recur with marked seasonality around the end of winter, in the northern as well as in the southern hemisphere. Although seasonality is one of the most familiar features of influenza, it is also one of the least understood. Indoor crowding during cold weather, seasonal fluctuations in host immune responses, and environmental factors, including relative humidity, temperature, and UV radiation have all been suggested to account for this phenomenon, but none of these hypotheses has been tested directly. Influenza causes significant morbidity in tropical regions; however, in contrast to the situation in temperate zones, influenza in the tropics is not strongly associated with a certain season.

In the tropics, flood-related influenza is typical after extreme weather. The virulence of influenza viruses depends on temperature and time. Especially in cases of local water supplies with “young” and fresh influenza-contaminated water from low local wells, cisterns, tanks, rain barrels, ponds, rivers or rice paddies, this pathway can explain H5N1 infections. At 24°C, for example, in the tropics the virulence of influenza viruses in water exists for 2 days. In temperate climates with “older” water from central water supplies, the temperature of the water is decisive for the virulence of viruses. At 7°C the virulence of influenza viruses in water extends to 14 days.

Ducks and rice (paddies = flooded by water) are major factors in outbreaks of avian flu, claims a UN agency: Ducks and rice fields may be a critical factor in spreading H5N1. Ducks, rice (fields, paddies = flooded by water; farmers at work drink the water from rice paddies) and people – not chickens – have emerged as the most significant factors in the spread of avian influenza in Thailand and Vietnam, according to a study carried out by a group of experts from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and associated research centres. See http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=26096&Cr=&Cr1

The study “Mapping H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza risk in Southeast Asia: ducks, rice and people” also concludes that these factors are probably behind persistent outbreaks in other countries such as Cambodia and Laos. This study examined a series of waves of H5N1, a highly pathogenic avian influenza, in Thailand and Vietnam between early 2004 and late 2005. Through the use of satellite mapping, researchers looked at several different factors, including the numbers of ducks, geese and chickens, human population size, rice cultivation and geography, and found a strong link between duck grazing patterns and rice cropping intensity.

In Thailand, for example, the proportion of young ducks in flocks was found to peak in September-October; these rapidly growing young ducks can therefore benefit from the peak of the rice harvest in November-December, at the beginning of the cold: Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos – as opposed to Indonesia – are located in the northern hemisphere.

These peaks in the congregation of ducks indicate periods in which there is an increase in the chances for virus release and exposure, and rice paddies often become a temporary habitat for wild bird species. In addition, with virus persistence becoming increasingly confined to areas with intensive rice-duck agriculture in eastern and south-eastern Asia, the evolution of the H5N1 virus may become easier to predict.

Dipl.-Ing. Wilfried Soddemann - Epidemiologist - Free Science Journalist soddemann-aachen@t-online.de http://www.dugi-ev.de/information.html

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